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PhD topics for academic year 2019/2020

Department of Gaseous and Solid Fuels and Air protection

Chemical Processing of Fuels and Energetics

Study Programme: Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Environment

CO2 removal from flue gas using low temperature adsorption

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Kyselová Veronika, Ing. Ph.D. ( Ver...@vscht.cz)
In the framework of the work will be developed a special modified adsorption materials using impregnating agents with high affinity to the CO2 (e.g., org. amines). Prepared adsorbents will be tested first in laboratory scale for the adsorption of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Various methods of regeneration of saturated adsorbent will be also investigated. Adsorbents with high sorption capacity to the CO2 in repeated cycles of ad- and desorption will subsequently tested for the CO2 removal from flue gas in pilot scale using real flue gas produced by the coal combustion.

Determination of the composition of natural gas using Raman spectroscopy

Hlinčík Tomáš, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( Tom...@vscht.cz)
Natural gas contains hydrocarbon and inert components which can be commonly determined using gas chromatography. Utilization Ramana spectroscopy for analysis of substances contained in the natural gas has not been more widely studied and the use of spectral methods has great potential in the future compared with chromatographic methods. The aim of this work is the study of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components of natural gas using Raman spectroscopy.

Heavy metals removal from flue gas produced during combustion of coal

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Kyselová Veronika, Ing. Ph.D. ( Ver...@vscht.cz)
The work is focused on testing of adsorbents suitable to the mercury removal from the flue gases produced by the brown coal combustion. The goal is to find the optimal adsorbents to allow effective removal of mercury from power plant flue gases produced by combustion of the Czech Brown, to estimate their adsorption capacities for mercury under the conditions of power plant flue gas adsorption (high temperature and high humidity) and the possibility of the eventual regeneration of saturated adsorbents. The work is part of the grant project TACR.

Influence of hydrogen in natural gas on the gas infrastructure

Hlinčík Tomáš, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( Tom...@vscht.cz)
Tenkrát Daniel, Ing. Ph.D. ( ten...@vscht.cz)
The thesis is focused on the study of different hydrogen content in natural gas and its influence on the gas infrastructure. At present, hydrogen is intended to be added to natural gas either as a pure gas or for example as a part of the gas produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. The issue of adding hydrogen to natural gas involves, in particular, mixing of hydrogen with natural gas in the pipeline system, influence on the calorific value and combustion properties, influence on the measuring and analytical systems, sealing systems, influence on natural gas compression at compressor stations, reduction of transport capacity, reduction of methane number or limiting factors during the storage of hydrogen - natural gas mixtures.

Leaks flanged connections for various gaseous media

Hlinčík Tomáš, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( Tom...@vscht.cz)
Tenkrát Daniel, Ing. Ph.D. ( ten...@vscht.cz)
The thesis is primarily focused on the study of gas leakages through flange connections for helium systems in the concept of the IV. generation nuclear reactors. Nevertheless, part of the work will focus also on testing leakages of other gaseous media, especially natural gas or hydrogen. Except gas leakage testing over different sealing materials, penetration tests of permanent gases into the piping system under increased pressure and elevated temperatures will be executed.

Materials for high temperature systems

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Berka Jan, Ing. Ph.D. ( jan...@vscht.cz)
he nuclear generation IV reactors are considered to replace older energy producing devices in the future. Several types of generation IV reactors are proposed. In two types of them - High Temperature reactor (HTR) and Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) helium as a coolant is used. Pressure and temperature of helium in these types of reactors reache very high values - to 16 MPa and 1000°C, and higher temperatures are planned for the future to achiveve higher effectivity for gonversion of thermal to electrical energy. This environment may damage components of the system, therefore structural materials have to be as resistant as possible. Structural materials for HTR a GFR may be distinguished into two types: metallic and nonmetallic. Among metallic materials for HTR belong mainly high tempemperature resistant steels and metal alloys. On metallic materials the tests of high temperature creep (constant strain) and fatigue (dynamic strain) resistance, corrosion in impure helium, etc. should be performed. Nonmetalic materials used in HTR are mainly nuclear graphite and composite materials. These materials should be tested for oxidation in impure helium, creep, dimensional and structural changes at high temperatures under and without radiation, etc.
Development principles: 1. Vypracujte literární rešerši zaměřenou na téma: Koknstrukční materiály plynem chlazených reaktorů (zaměřte se hlavně na materiály používané pro konstrukci heliem chlazených HTR a GFR reaktorů), testování těchto materiálů v plynném prostředí za vysokých teplot a vliv prostředí plynného chladiva na vlastnosti materiálů při vysokých teplotách při i bez současného působení radioaktivního záření, poslední trendy v oboru vysokoteplotních materiálů. 2. Ná základě získaných vědoností navrhněte typy materiálů a testy, kterým by měly být tyto materiály podrobeny. Předpokládá se, že půjde o testování koroze materiálů v peci v prostředí helia obsahujícího nečistoty typické pro systémy HTR v koncentracích v řádu jednotek a ž stovek ppm. Testy budou provedeny bez vlivu radioaktivního záření. 3. Proveďtte experimenty, vyhodnoťte a porovnejte výsledky testů vlastností materiálů v prostředí helia obsahujícího nečistoty. Srovnejte s údaji publikovanými v literatuře, jsou-li k dispozici, formulujte závěry.

Removal of acidic components of the energetic gas above the dew point of tars

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Pohořelý Michael, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( poh...@vscht.cz)
Gas produced by the thermochemical conversion of carbonaceous materials contains impurities causing several problems when the gas is used for the production of electric energy or alternative gaseous or liquid fuels or chemical commodities. The work is focused on designing and verifying the concept of removal of sulphur compounds and hydrogen halides from the pyrolysis gas and producer gas at higher temperatures (>350°C).

Study of the Claus and Sulfreen processes

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Machač Pavel, Ing. CSc. ( mac...@vscht.cz)
For measurement of absorption processes are a wide range of laboratory equipment. Preferably bouble column reactors in our case is the possibility of measuring chemisorption of SO2 at various conditions. The work is focused on the experimental verification of the influence of additives based on organic, respectively. other additives for sorption of SO2 from flue gas in the model limestone slurry. Sampling and physical conditions is such that it is possible to approach the conditions of an industrial process or conditions prevailing in the Czech power station blocks equipped with wet limestone desulfurization technology.
Development principles: 1. Vypracujte literární rešerši na zadané téma 2. Experimentálně ověřte parametry, které ovlivňují sorpční děj 3. Sestavte rovnice popisující sorpční pochod v daných experimentálních podmínkách 4. Vyhodnoťte reprodukovatelnost měření.

Department of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels

Chemical Processing of Fuels and Energetics

Study Programme: Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Environment

Analysis of fuel additives and determination of their content in motor fuels

Šimáček Pavel, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( sim...@vscht.cz)
Motor fuels often contain low concentrations of special fuel additives, which improve their properties. The additives can be commonly added to motor fuels during their production, but they can be also added to motor fuels after basic refinery fuel formulation, mostly in form of additive packages present in premium motor fuels. There are also retail additive packages designed for fuel treatment directly in the fuel tanks of vehicles. The scope of the work is development and optimization of analytical methods designed for fuel additives, for their identification and determination of their content in motor fuels.

Hydrocracking of refined pyrolytic bio-oils blended with petroleum vacuum distillates

Kubička David, Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( Dav...@vscht.cz)
Straka Petr, Ing. Ph.D. ( str...@vscht.cz)
The thesis will focus on investigating the possibility of potential application hydro-stabilized bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in hydrocracking of vacuum distillates. The subject of the research will study the effect of feedstock composition and reaction conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, excess hydrogen, catalyst properties) on the quantity, composition and properties of the products of hydrocracking. Attention will be focused on the study of reactions, which compounds in bio-oil are subjected during hydrocracking conditions.

Hydrogenation of aldol condensation products

Kubička David, Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( Dav...@vscht.cz)
The thesis will deal with hydrogenation of products obtained by aldol condensation of e.g. furfural with acetone or cyclohexanone. These products are highly functionalized which makes their selective conversion into components of aviation biofuels or bio-monomers highly challenging. The key aspect is the development of a stable and selective bifunctional catalyst that will allow obtaining high yields of desired hydrocarbons or diols. Main attention will be focused on synthesis, characterization and testing of catalysts with the aim to describe the relationship between catalyst’s composition and properties, on the one hand, and its activity and selectivity, on the other hand, and facilitate thus rational design of an optimum catalytic system.

Influence of Crude Oil Composition on its Transport and Storage Behavior

Blažek Josef, doc. Ing. CSc. ( bla...@vscht.cz)
Maxa Daniel, Ing. Ph.D. ( m...@vscht.cz)
The formation of paraffinic sludge and sediments represents a major problem for transport and long-term storage of crude oil. Prediction of the rate of sediment formation as well as its amount and quality could save additional costs needed to clean crude oil tanks or to perform unnecessary pipeline pigging. Main components of crude oil sediment are high-molecular-weight paraffins and Asphaltenes; their role in the crude oil stability during storage and transport is well known in general. However, the formation of crude oil sludge and its properties is strongly affected by the interaction between their basic constituents and by conditions, described as thermal and mechanical history of crude oil. Resulting complicated behaviour of crude oil and mixtures was not described enough to estimate sludge formation with sufficient reliability. The research will address the influence of crude oil composition and thermal history on its stability, composition and the structure of substances present in solid phase dispersed in crude oil sludge.

Methods for the quantitative evaluation of pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrogenation products

Šimáček Pavel, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( sim...@vscht.cz)
Staš Martin, Ing. Ph.D. ( mar...@vscht.cz)
Pyrolysis bio-oils are liquid products of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. They have a very promising potential to be widely used as advanced biofuels after appropriate upgrading or as a source of valuable oxygen-containing chemicals. The chemical composition of bio-oils is very complicated as they contain thousands of different mostly oxygen-containing compounds with a wide distribution of physical and chemical properties and concentrations. A detailed knowledge of bio-oil composition is crucial in order to optimize pyrolysis processes and/or subsequent bio-oil upgrading processes. The main challenge in bio-oil analysis is the identification of individual compounds and their accurate quantification. The main aim of this dissertation will be the formulation of strategies for obtaining in-depth information on the composition of bio-oils and/or products of their hydrotreatment. The emphasis will be placed on the quantification of compounds with the key oxygen-containing functional groups present in bio-oils including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, phenols, carbohydrates, etc.

Production of synthetic biodiesel by hydrotreating of vegetable oils

Blažek Josef, doc. Ing. CSc. ( bla...@vscht.cz)
Straka Petr, Ing. Ph.D. ( str...@vscht.cz)
The project will deal by of hydrotreating different vegetable oils. The main attention will be focused on the study of reactions that take place on different types of catalysts. Hydrotreatment will be subjected to less valuable raw material mainly composed of tryacylglycerides (e.g. spent frying oil) as well. Influence of the feedstock composition and the reaction conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, excess hydrogen, catalyst properties) on the amount and properties of the products from hydrotreatment will be examined.

Department of Power Engineering

Chemical Processing of Fuels and Energetics

Study Programme: Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Environment

Biochar Production, Characterization and Utilization

Pohořelý Michael, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( poh...@vscht.cz)
Trakal Lukáš, Doc. Mgr. Ph.D.
Biochar is essentially charcoal, i.e., a carbon-rich porous material.
The work will be focused on the production, characterization and utilization of biochar.
The properties of biochars produced from different types of biomass will be characterized in cooperation with the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, primarily according to the European Standard EBC (European Biochar Certificate), international standardization IBI (International Biochar Initiative Biochar Standards), and the forthcoming Europen legislation 2016/0084 (COD). The additives will be further analysed using specific analytical methods (XRD, XRF, SEM-EDX, XPS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, NMR, porosimetry, thermal analysis methods etc.).
The use of the biochar will be investigated by laboratory tests and real applications in collaboration with CULS. The partners of the project are, besides the mentioned research institutions, also private farmers, the Botanical Garden in Prague, and the substrate producers.

Carbon black production from wastes with the aid of thermal plasma

Pohořelý Michael, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( poh...@vscht.cz)
Jeremiáš Michal, Ing. Ph.D. ( jer...@vscht.cz)
Since the industrial revolution, carbon black (CB) production steadily increased to reach a current production of 12 million tons per year (2017). Last news on the Worldwide Carbon Black Market says the demand will continue to grow and it is expected a production of 20 million tons by the year 2020. [1] The current manufacturing processes of the CB could be classified into two categories: incomplete combustion and thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. [2] Plasma processes for the production of carbon black have the advantage to produce in one step carbon black and H2 without direct emissions (CO2, SOx, NOx, etc.) connected with the combustion processes used for the standard production of carbon black. Also, indirect emissions can be prevented by the use of electricity produced by renewable sources (possibly off-peak electricity). The PhD project will explore the possibilities of the production of carbon black from waste materials. It will consist of a thorough literature review, and a 150 kW demonstration of carbon black production by thermal plasma from selected wastes under carefully selected conditions. The desired result is a proposal of a complex technological process of the production of CB from available and useful waste materials including an economical perspective.

Material compatibility in the environment of fuels containing a bio-component.

Macák Jan, doc. Ing. CSc. ( mac...@vscht.cz)
Matějovský Lukáš, Ing. ( luk...@vscht.cz)
Content of a bio-component (e.g. bio-ETBE, bioethanol, bio-butanol) changes significantly physical-chemical properties of automotive fuels. With the increasing content of a bio-component the polarity, conductivity and water absorptivity of the fuel increases. Consequently, corrosion aggressivity is increased. One of possibilities to supress corrosion degradation is application of corrosion inhibitors.
The subject of this work is corrosion and corrosion inhibition study in the environment of automotive fuels containing a bio-component.

Study of material behaviour under simulated conditions of spent nuclear fuel repository

Macák Jan, doc. Ing. CSc. ( mac...@vscht.cz)
Černoušek Tomáš, Ing. ( Cer...@razdva.cz)

Synthesis and characterization of polymeric sorbents

Jelínek Luděk, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( jel...@vscht.cz)
Updated: 17.2.2017 13:52, Author: Miroslav Šimek

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