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PhD topics for academic year 2019/2020

Environmental Chemistry and Technology

Study Programme: Enviromental Chemistry and Technology

Biological and bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to biomethane

Zábranská Jana, prof. Ing. CSc. ( zab...@vscht.cz)
Pokorná Dana, Ing. CSc. ( pok...@vscht.cz)
The theme encompasses biological and bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide from various resources to biomethane, that is transportable to the site of full exploitation its energy. Electrons or electrolytic hydrogen from ecologically produced electric current bring reducing equivalents for a biotransformation. Tasks of the project include a design of bioelectrochemical system, suggestion of suitable sources of electrotrophic methanogens population and optimization of cultivation conditions. The aim is an accomplishment of the system with a high and stabile efficiency in electron capture and CO2 transformation. Microbial settlement on electrode surface will be analyzed by methods of molecular biology. Composition and stability of microbial consortium, mutual relationship and responses to changes of chemical and electrochemical conditions connected with the system efficiency will be studied.
Development principles: Práce má dvě zásadní linie – technickou a mikrobiologickou. V rámci technického řešení bude na základě dostupných poznatků navržena sestava bioelektrochemického systému, kde jsou varianty dvoukomorového a jednokomorového provedení. Důležitý je výběr konstrukčního materiálu, materiálu a složení elektrod a separačních membrán, kdy bude brán ohled nejenom na účinnost, ale i na dostupnost a cenu, dále bude řešen vhodný zdroj elektrického proudu. Významnou částí práce je zjištění limitací procesu a reakcí kultury na změny chemických i elektrochemických podmínek, které jsou spojeny s elektromethanogenezí a účinností systému.
Důležité parametry procesy budou sledovány nejvhodnějšími chemickými a elektrochemickými metodami a bude zjišťována fyzikálně-chemická limitace procesu – vliv tlaku, teploty a způsobu vnosu CO2 do systému. Složení plynné fáze bude stanovováno plynovým chromatografem s tepelně-vodivostním detektorem, složení kapalné fáze bude analyzováno standardními analytickými postupy, speciální intermetabolity budou stanoveny plynovým chromatografem s plamenoionizačním detektorem. Hodnoty napětí a proudu budou průběžně řízeny a monitorovány.
Mikrobiologická část bude zahrnovat hledání zdrojů anaerobní kultury s methanogenní elektroaktivitou, kultivace vybraných zdrojů s cílem obohacení elektroaktivních bakterií a optimalizaci fyzikálně-chemických podmínek. Dále bude zjišťována diverzifikace elektroaktivních methanogenů a jejich metabolické aktivity v závislosti na podmínkách kultivace.

Design and specification of antimicrobial properties of filtrating components applied for air conditioning in water treatment plans

Říhová Ambrožová Jana, doc. RNDr. Ph.D. ( amb...@vscht.cz)
Development principles: Mikroorganismy jsou stálou součástí vzduchu ve volné atmosféře i v uzavřených prostorách, jsou vázány na aerosoly, kapénky anebo na povrch jemných prachových částic. Míra prašnosti významně souvisí s mikrobiální kontaminací a naopak. V současné době je velmi diskutovaným problémem výskyt patogenních a podmíněně patogenních mikroorganismů ve vzduchu a v aerosolech, které lze vhodně eliminovat účinným využitím ventilačního filtračního zařízení. Často přítomnost těchto mikroorganismů v ovzduší souvisí i s jejich přítomností ve vodě. Jedná se o původce nosokomiálních infekcí, které jsou známe jako organismy rezistentní vůči antibiotikům. Hlavními zástupci jsou organismy ze skupiny ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosaEnterobacter sp.). O patogenních bakteriích tohoto typu je známo, že se v ovzduší nevyskytují dlouho a mají jistou adaptaci spojenou s fyziologickým stresem při přenosu vzduchem. V současné době se připravuje standardizace ve sledování nosokomiálních mikroorganismů (ISO/TC 147/SC 4 N 587). V ovzduší se vyskytují kromě bakterií další mikroorganismy, významné z hlediska negativního vlivu na akumulovanou pitnou vodu v akumulačních nádržích vodojemů, velmi odolné jsou například spory různých mikromycet, mezi které patří významně zastoupený druh Aspergillus fumigatus. Smyslem práce bude sledování míry mikrobiální kontaminace ovzduší v různých typech vodojemů s cílem návrhu vhodné filtrační sestavy účinně eliminující mikrobiální kontaminaci ze vzduchu proudícího z/do komor. Vodojemy jsou strategicky významné vodárenské objekty z pohledu rizikové analýzy a bezpečného zásobování obyvatel pitnou vodou. Je zcela žádoucí vytvořit filtrační sestavy odpovídající požadavkům kladeným na vodárenské objekty. Součástí projektu bude vývoj vhodné metody pro testování všech klíčových parametrů ovlivňujících mikrobiální úroveň ovzduší.

Determination and assessment of risks related to the use of treated wastewater and its recipients

Vejmelková Dana, Ing. Ph.D. ( dan...@vscht.cz)
Říhová Ambrožová Jana, doc. RNDr. Ph.D. ( amb...@vscht.cz)

Ecodesign of materials

Kočí Vladimír, doc. Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( k...@vscht.cz)
The environmental aspects of materials should be one of the criteria taken into account by designers. The LCA method makes it possible to compare the environmental impacts of different anthropogenic stressors with respect to the entire life cycle of the product, technology or service. Environmental impacts can be assessed globally or locally, but mainly either in general or with a focus on the site. This work will focus on the creation of a methodology for the identification and presentation of environmental aspects of materials.
Development principles: Na základě konzultací se školitelem a konzultanty z praxe vypracujte metodiku určování site-specific environmentálních dat materiálů používaných pro ekodesign.

Elimination of micropolutants entering drinking water

Šmejkalová Pavla, Dr. Ing. ( pav...@vscht.cz)
The work will be devoted to methods of removing micropolutants (pesticides, drugs etc.) from drinking water with focus on the use of advanced oxidation processes.

Environmental aspects of recycling of construction materials from the point of view of architecture and design

Kočí Vladimír, doc. Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( k...@vscht.cz)
Lupíšek Antonín, Ing. Ph.D. ( ant...@cvut.cz)
The doctoral work will focus on the issue of building recyclates in the selected countries and on the determination of the environmental aspects of the use of recycled materials from the perspective of the LCA method.
Development principles: Na základě konzultací se školitelem vypracujte metodiku pro sběr dat zohledňujících environmentální aspekty různých stavebních recyklátů.

Optimisation of microaeration for H2S removal from biogas

Bartáček Jan, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( jan...@vscht.cz)
The research on microaeration ,i.e. the dosing of small amount of air into anaerobic fermenters to remove sulphan, has a rich history at this department including a number of highly cited scientific publications. This process has already been well established in practice. However, there are still many unresolved problems. E.g. reliable airflow control, precise biogas output quality control, accurate theoretical description of the process in terms of the speed of the various chemical reactions and the composition of the bacterial culture that performs the process.
This research will include laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of the process. Transferring knowledge from research to real-world environments is expected.

Organické polutanty moderní doby a jejich analýza v životním prostředí

Kubal Martin, doc. Dr. Ing. ( kub...@vscht.cz)

Removal of Natural Organic Matter from Water

Janda Václav, prof. Ing. CSc. ( jan...@vscht.cz)
Šmejkalová Pavla, Dr. Ing. ( pav...@vscht.cz)
The aim of the work will be testing of organic and inorganic membranes for the removal of natural organic pollutants (natural organic matter, algogenic organic compounds, etc) from water. The membranes of different porosity and their suitability for the removal of various types of pollution will be tested. Removability of the contamination will be evaluated for the different types of membranes depending on the size of the macromolecules. The membrane fouling and the possibility of their regeneration in various ways, including regeneration by chemical agents, will be tested. The results should be particularly applicable in the drinking water area.

Site specific characterization factors of water footprint in the LCA method

Kočí Vladimír, doc. Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( k...@vscht.cz)
Ansorge Libor, Ing. Ph.D.
The water footprint is one of the major indicators of anthropogenic stress on the landscape. The LCA method makes it possible to compare the environmental impacts of different anthropogenic stressors with respect to the entire life cycle of the product, technology or service. Environmental impacts can be assessed globally or locally, but generally either site specific. This work will be focused on locally specific characterization factors of the water trail for the Czech Republic and the development of the method of their determination. The work will be consulted with colleagues from the Water Management Research Institute of TGM.
Development principles: Na základě konzultací se školitelem a konzultanty z VÚV TGM vypracujte metodiku určování site-specific charakterizačních faktorů pro určení vodní stopy.

Tertiary treatment of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant and water reuse for irrigation of urban greenery

Wanner Jiří, prof. Ing. DrSc. ( wan...@vscht.cz)
The thesis will deal with processes of tertiary treatment of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants. In particular, processes to ensure the removal of residual suspended solids, bacterial contamination, specific organic pollutants of the type of pharmaceuticals and hormones and a possible reduction in salinity will be studied. The water thus obtained will be used for irrigation experiments on plants representing typical urban greenery. The effect on plant growth will be studied, as well as on soil quality and groundwater. In this system, the distribution of specific organic pollutants will be monitored.
Development principles: Zpracujte literární rešerši zaměřenou na procesy terciárního čištění městských odpadních vod, zejména separaci zbytkových nerozpuštěných látek, dezinfekci, odstraňování specifických organických polutantů typu léčiv a hormonů a případně solnosti. Zároveň se zaměřte na dostupné informace o využití takto získané vody pro zavlažování v zemědělství a při údržbě městské zeleně.
Vybrané procesy studujte v poloprovozních zařízeních zpracovávajících odtok ze skutečné městské čistírny odpadních vod. Při zavlažovacích pokusech s rostlinami reprezentujícími typickou městkou zeleň se zaměřte na distribuci sledovaných zbytkových polutantů v systému rostlina (kořenová i nadzemní část) – zemina – podzemní voda.

The use of anammox bacteria as the source of specific membrane phospholipids

Bartáček Jan, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( jan...@vscht.cz)
This research focuses on the study of membrane phospholipids (mainly ladderans), which can be found in membranes of anammox bacteria. These phospholipids, which do not occur in any other bacteria, have a very unusual chemical structure and form extremely resistant membranes. The aim of this research is a detailed description of the properties and functions of membranes made of ladderans and the search for extraction methods and subsequent use of ladders. It can be for example the production of nanocapsules (nanorobots) to transport functional molecules into precisely defined tissues in the body.

Vliv sanačních technologií na půdní mikroflóru

Kubal Martin, doc. Dr. Ing. ( kub...@vscht.cz)

Chemical Processing of Fuels and Energetics

Study Programme: Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Environment

Analysis of fuel additives and determination of their content in motor fuels

Šimáček Pavel, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( sim...@vscht.cz)
Motor fuels often contain low concentrations of special fuel additives, which improve their properties. The additives can be commonly added to motor fuels during their production, but they can be also added to motor fuels after basic refinery fuel formulation, mostly in form of additive packages present in premium motor fuels. There are also retail additive packages designed for fuel treatment directly in the fuel tanks of vehicles. The scope of the work is development and optimization of analytical methods designed for fuel additives, for their identification and determination of their content in motor fuels.

Biochar Production, Characterization and Utilization

Pohořelý Michael, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( poh...@vscht.cz)
Trakal Lukáš, Doc. Mgr. Ph.D.
Biochar is essentially charcoal, i.e., a carbon-rich porous material.
The work will be focused on the production, characterization and utilization of biochar.
The properties of biochars produced from different types of biomass will be characterized in cooperation with the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, primarily according to the European Standard EBC (European Biochar Certificate), international standardization IBI (International Biochar Initiative Biochar Standards), and the forthcoming Europen legislation 2016/0084 (COD). The additives will be further analysed using specific analytical methods (XRD, XRF, SEM-EDX, XPS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, NMR, porosimetry, thermal analysis methods etc.).
The use of the biochar will be investigated by laboratory tests and real applications in collaboration with CULS. The partners of the project are, besides the mentioned research institutions, also private farmers, the Botanical Garden in Prague, and the substrate producers.

Carbon black production from wastes with the aid of thermal plasma

Pohořelý Michael, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( poh...@vscht.cz)
Jeremiáš Michal, Ing. Ph.D. ( jer...@vscht.cz)
Since the industrial revolution, carbon black (CB) production steadily increased to reach a current production of 12 million tons per year (2017). Last news on the Worldwide Carbon Black Market says the demand will continue to grow and it is expected a production of 20 million tons by the year 2020. [1] The current manufacturing processes of the CB could be classified into two categories: incomplete combustion and thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. [2] Plasma processes for the production of carbon black have the advantage to produce in one step carbon black and H2 without direct emissions (CO2, SOx, NOx, etc.) connected with the combustion processes used for the standard production of carbon black. Also, indirect emissions can be prevented by the use of electricity produced by renewable sources (possibly off-peak electricity). The PhD project will explore the possibilities of the production of carbon black from waste materials. It will consist of a thorough literature review, and a 150 kW demonstration of carbon black production by thermal plasma from selected wastes under carefully selected conditions. The desired result is a proposal of a complex technological process of the production of CB from available and useful waste materials including an economical perspective.

CO2 removal from flue gas using low temperature adsorption

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Kyselová Veronika, Ing. Ph.D. ( Ver...@vscht.cz)
In the framework of the work will be developed a special modified adsorption materials using impregnating agents with high affinity to the CO2 (e.g., org. amines). Prepared adsorbents will be tested first in laboratory scale for the adsorption of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Various methods of regeneration of saturated adsorbent will be also investigated. Adsorbents with high sorption capacity to the CO2 in repeated cycles of ad- and desorption will subsequently tested for the CO2 removal from flue gas in pilot scale using real flue gas produced by the coal combustion.

Determination of the composition of natural gas using Raman spectroscopy

Hlinčík Tomáš, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( Tom...@vscht.cz)
Natural gas contains hydrocarbon and inert components which can be commonly determined using gas chromatography. Utilization Ramana spectroscopy for analysis of substances contained in the natural gas has not been more widely studied and the use of spectral methods has great potential in the future compared with chromatographic methods. The aim of this work is the study of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components of natural gas using Raman spectroscopy.

Heavy metals removal from flue gas produced during combustion of coal

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Kyselová Veronika, Ing. Ph.D. ( Ver...@vscht.cz)
The work is focused on testing of adsorbents suitable to the mercury removal from the flue gases produced by the brown coal combustion. The goal is to find the optimal adsorbents to allow effective removal of mercury from power plant flue gases produced by combustion of the Czech Brown, to estimate their adsorption capacities for mercury under the conditions of power plant flue gas adsorption (high temperature and high humidity) and the possibility of the eventual regeneration of saturated adsorbents. The work is part of the grant project TACR.

Hydrocracking of refined pyrolytic bio-oils blended with petroleum vacuum distillates

Kubička David, Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( Dav...@vscht.cz)
Straka Petr, Ing. Ph.D. ( str...@vscht.cz)
The thesis will focus on investigating the possibility of potential application hydro-stabilized bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in hydrocracking of vacuum distillates. The subject of the research will study the effect of feedstock composition and reaction conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, excess hydrogen, catalyst properties) on the quantity, composition and properties of the products of hydrocracking. Attention will be focused on the study of reactions, which compounds in bio-oil are subjected during hydrocracking conditions.

Hydrogenation of aldol condensation products

Kubička David, Ing. Ph.D., MBA ( Dav...@vscht.cz)
The thesis will deal with hydrogenation of products obtained by aldol condensation of e.g. furfural with acetone or cyclohexanone. These products are highly functionalized which makes their selective conversion into components of aviation biofuels or bio-monomers highly challenging. The key aspect is the development of a stable and selective bifunctional catalyst that will allow obtaining high yields of desired hydrocarbons or diols. Main attention will be focused on synthesis, characterization and testing of catalysts with the aim to describe the relationship between catalyst’s composition and properties, on the one hand, and its activity and selectivity, on the other hand, and facilitate thus rational design of an optimum catalytic system.

Influence of Crude Oil Composition on its Transport and Storage Behavior

Blažek Josef, doc. Ing. CSc. ( bla...@vscht.cz)
Maxa Daniel, Ing. Ph.D. ( m...@vscht.cz)
The formation of paraffinic sludge and sediments represents a major problem for transport and long-term storage of crude oil. Prediction of the rate of sediment formation as well as its amount and quality could save additional costs needed to clean crude oil tanks or to perform unnecessary pipeline pigging. Main components of crude oil sediment are high-molecular-weight paraffins and Asphaltenes; their role in the crude oil stability during storage and transport is well known in general. However, the formation of crude oil sludge and its properties is strongly affected by the interaction between their basic constituents and by conditions, described as thermal and mechanical history of crude oil. Resulting complicated behaviour of crude oil and mixtures was not described enough to estimate sludge formation with sufficient reliability. The research will address the influence of crude oil composition and thermal history on its stability, composition and the structure of substances present in solid phase dispersed in crude oil sludge.

Influence of hydrogen in natural gas on the gas infrastructure

Hlinčík Tomáš, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( Tom...@vscht.cz)
Tenkrát Daniel, Ing. Ph.D. ( ten...@vscht.cz)
The thesis is focused on the study of different hydrogen content in natural gas and its influence on the gas infrastructure. At present, hydrogen is intended to be added to natural gas either as a pure gas or for example as a part of the gas produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. The issue of adding hydrogen to natural gas involves, in particular, mixing of hydrogen with natural gas in the pipeline system, influence on the calorific value and combustion properties, influence on the measuring and analytical systems, sealing systems, influence on natural gas compression at compressor stations, reduction of transport capacity, reduction of methane number or limiting factors during the storage of hydrogen - natural gas mixtures.

Leaks flanged connections for various gaseous media

Hlinčík Tomáš, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( Tom...@vscht.cz)
Tenkrát Daniel, Ing. Ph.D. ( ten...@vscht.cz)
The thesis is primarily focused on the study of gas leakages through flange connections for helium systems in the concept of the IV. generation nuclear reactors. Nevertheless, part of the work will focus also on testing leakages of other gaseous media, especially natural gas or hydrogen. Except gas leakage testing over different sealing materials, penetration tests of permanent gases into the piping system under increased pressure and elevated temperatures will be executed.

Material compatibility in the environment of fuels containing a bio-component.

Macák Jan, doc. Ing. CSc. ( mac...@vscht.cz)
Matějovský Lukáš, Ing. Ph.D. ( luk...@vscht.cz)
Content of a bio-component (e.g. bio-ETBE, bioethanol, bio-butanol) changes significantly physical-chemical properties of automotive fuels. With the increasing content of a bio-component the polarity, conductivity and water absorptivity of the fuel increases. Consequently, corrosion aggressivity is increased. One of possibilities to supress corrosion degradation is application of corrosion inhibitors.
The subject of this work is corrosion and corrosion inhibition study in the environment of automotive fuels containing a bio-component.

Materials for high temperature systems

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Berka Jan, Ing. Ph.D. ( jan...@vscht.cz)
he nuclear generation IV reactors are considered to replace older energy producing devices in the future. Several types of generation IV reactors are proposed. In two types of them - High Temperature reactor (HTR) and Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) helium as a coolant is used. Pressure and temperature of helium in these types of reactors reache very high values - to 16 MPa and 1000°C, and higher temperatures are planned for the future to achiveve higher effectivity for gonversion of thermal to electrical energy. This environment may damage components of the system, therefore structural materials have to be as resistant as possible. Structural materials for HTR a GFR may be distinguished into two types: metallic and nonmetallic. Among metallic materials for HTR belong mainly high tempemperature resistant steels and metal alloys. On metallic materials the tests of high temperature creep (constant strain) and fatigue (dynamic strain) resistance, corrosion in impure helium, etc. should be performed. Nonmetalic materials used in HTR are mainly nuclear graphite and composite materials. These materials should be tested for oxidation in impure helium, creep, dimensional and structural changes at high temperatures under and without radiation, etc.
Development principles: 1. Vypracujte literární rešerši zaměřenou na téma: Koknstrukční materiály plynem chlazených reaktorů (zaměřte se hlavně na materiály používané pro konstrukci heliem chlazených HTR a GFR reaktorů), testování těchto materiálů v plynném prostředí za vysokých teplot a vliv prostředí plynného chladiva na vlastnosti materiálů při vysokých teplotách při i bez současného působení radioaktivního záření, poslední trendy v oboru vysokoteplotních materiálů. 2. Ná základě získaných vědoností navrhněte typy materiálů a testy, kterým by měly být tyto materiály podrobeny. Předpokládá se, že půjde o testování koroze materiálů v peci v prostředí helia obsahujícího nečistoty typické pro systémy HTR v koncentracích v řádu jednotek a ž stovek ppm. Testy budou provedeny bez vlivu radioaktivního záření. 3. Proveďtte experimenty, vyhodnoťte a porovnejte výsledky testů vlastností materiálů v prostředí helia obsahujícího nečistoty. Srovnejte s údaji publikovanými v literatuře, jsou-li k dispozici, formulujte závěry.

Methods for the quantitative evaluation of pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrogenation products

Šimáček Pavel, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( sim...@vscht.cz)
Staš Martin, Ing. Ph.D. ( mar...@vscht.cz)
Pyrolysis bio-oils are liquid products of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. They have a very promising potential to be widely used as advanced biofuels after appropriate upgrading or as a source of valuable oxygen-containing chemicals. The chemical composition of bio-oils is very complicated as they contain thousands of different mostly oxygen-containing compounds with a wide distribution of physical and chemical properties and concentrations. A detailed knowledge of bio-oil composition is crucial in order to optimize pyrolysis processes and/or subsequent bio-oil upgrading processes. The main challenge in bio-oil analysis is the identification of individual compounds and their accurate quantification. The main aim of this dissertation will be the formulation of strategies for obtaining in-depth information on the composition of bio-oils and/or products of their hydrotreatment. The emphasis will be placed on the quantification of compounds with the key oxygen-containing functional groups present in bio-oils including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, phenols, carbohydrates, etc.

Production of synthetic biodiesel by hydrotreating of vegetable oils

Blažek Josef, doc. Ing. CSc. ( bla...@vscht.cz)
Straka Petr, Ing. Ph.D. ( str...@vscht.cz)
The project will deal by of hydrotreating different vegetable oils. The main attention will be focused on the study of reactions that take place on different types of catalysts. Hydrotreatment will be subjected to less valuable raw material mainly composed of tryacylglycerides (e.g. spent frying oil) as well. Influence of the feedstock composition and the reaction conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, excess hydrogen, catalyst properties) on the amount and properties of the products from hydrotreatment will be examined.

Removal of acidic components of the energetic gas above the dew point of tars

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Pohořelý Michael, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( poh...@vscht.cz)
Gas produced by the thermochemical conversion of carbonaceous materials contains impurities causing several problems when the gas is used for the production of electric energy or alternative gaseous or liquid fuels or chemical commodities. The work is focused on designing and verifying the concept of removal of sulphur compounds and hydrogen halides from the pyrolysis gas and producer gas at higher temperatures (>350°C).

Study of material behaviour under simulated conditions of spent nuclear fuel repository

Macák Jan, doc. Ing. CSc. ( mac...@vscht.cz)
Černoušek Tomáš, Ing. ( Cer...@razdva.cz)

Study of the Claus and Sulfreen processes

Ciahotný Karel, doc. Ing. CSc. ( cia...@vscht.cz)
Machač Pavel, Ing. CSc. ( mac...@vscht.cz)
For measurement of absorption processes are a wide range of laboratory equipment. Preferably bouble column reactors in our case is the possibility of measuring chemisorption of SO2 at various conditions. The work is focused on the experimental verification of the influence of additives based on organic, respectively. other additives for sorption of SO2 from flue gas in the model limestone slurry. Sampling and physical conditions is such that it is possible to approach the conditions of an industrial process or conditions prevailing in the Czech power station blocks equipped with wet limestone desulfurization technology.
Development principles: 1. Vypracujte literární rešerši na zadané téma 2. Experimentálně ověřte parametry, které ovlivňují sorpční děj 3. Sestavte rovnice popisující sorpční pochod v daných experimentálních podmínkách 4. Vyhodnoťte reprodukovatelnost měření.

Synthesis and characterization of polymeric sorbents

Jelínek Luděk, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( jel...@vscht.cz)

The hydrogen production from waste hydrogen sulphide

Šimáček Pavel, doc. Ing. Ph.D. ( sim...@vscht.cz)
Development principles: Sirovodík je jednoduchá molekula, která je svou strukturou podobná vodě. Oproti vodě je méně stabilní, tudíž je jeho rozklad na základní prvky snazší. Tento fakt činí sirovodík opomíjeným zdrojem vodíku. Rafinérský průmysl a průmysl zpracování zemního plynu produkuje velká množství sirovodíku, který je pomocí Clausova procesu převeden na síru a teplo. V případě, že by bylo možné ze sirovodíku získat vedle síry i vodík, jeho ekonomický potenciál by významně vzrostl. Vzhledem ke zpracování stále těžších rop s vyšším obsahem síry se tak výroba vodíku z odpadního sirovodíku jeví velice zajímavou. Existuje několik způsobů, jak rozložit sirovodík na vstupní prvky, avšak ani jeden z nich není průmyslově využíván. Jedná se o elektrochemický rozklad v roztoku nebo tavenině, termický rozklad, rozklad za použití UV záření a rozklad na kovových katalyzátorech. Dizertační práce bude zabývat zkoumáním katalytického rozkladu sirovodíku na kovových nosičových katalyzátorech a porovnáním s termickým rozkladem.
Updated: 17.2.2017 13:52, Author: Miroslav Šimek

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